The plant trails on the ground and its creeping stems bear roots on their nodes. Leaves small, 2-4 cm diameter, sometimes more rounded or broad kidney-shaped, their margins toothed. Flowers brownish, subsessile, in umbels (minute, pinkish red, 3-6 in cluster). Fruits small, like a grain of barley, 7-9 ridged compressed
Plant contains triterpenoid asiaticoside-A and Asiaticoside-B, triterpene acid madasiatic acid. Two triterpene acids - brahmic acid, isobrahmic acid and two saponins - brahmoside and brahminoside isolated. A triterpene glycoside - thankuniside acid, thankunic acid isolated. Fresh leaves contain essential oil, fatty oil, sitosterols, tannin and resinous substance. Leaves and roots contain resin, bitter principle vellarine, pectic acid. Dried plant contains alkaloid hydrocotylin, glycoside asiaticoside.